county is placed
behind Biokovo mountain just where Bosnia, Herzegovina and Dalmatia
meet, so it is no wonder that the county was constantly changing
boundaries and rulers. The current boundaries were determined
during Požarevac peace treaty in 1718 when
the Imotski valley was split into two parts, one belonging to Dalmatia
i.e. Venetians at that time and the other to Turks who were the rulers
of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The relief was mostly formed in Eocene
and Neocene periods, the northern strip from Studenci to Imotski and
all the way to the Herzegovina boundary in the former and the Biokovo
region in the latter period. The relief got its shape at the end
of the Neocene period after the movements of the Earth crust caused by
wrinkling and crevices movements. The most important crevice is
on the northeast side which seems to be still active. The young
stones were removed by the rivers in the valley while the collapsing of
underground caves gave rise to Imotski lakes.
situated in between Podi
plato, 600-700 meters high on the north side and Osoje ravine on the
southern side. It is 33.3 km long running from northwest toward
southeast. 17.5 km of it belongs to Imotski county.
The valley is widest between Runović and
Vinjani, 5 km and the narrowest between Kamen Most and Glavina, 1
km. The Dalmatian part of the valley is 45 km² area that consists
of Upper and Lower valleys. The Upper valley, 22,5 km², has
Proložac field, Proložac
retention with Krenice, Proložac, and
Provalija lakes, Naklo, Lug, and Mujića fields, and Brižine.
The Lower valley consists of Pasike, Dila, Krenice, Ljupčevica,
Vinjani field, Otok, Zalug, and Zmijavci
and Runovići fields. The Imotski
county has 23,5 km² of the Lower valley while Herzegovina has 50
km². Herzegovina part of the valley is called Bekija.
There are many ravines, platoes, and hills
south of the valley: Mračaj (534m),
Podosoje (842), Vardište (693), Osoje
(868), Vilinjak (859), Orljaca (909), Sidoc (849), Sridnja gora (556)
and of course mountain Biokovo (1762). On the north side are
platoes Podi (680) and Vinjani (717).
In addition to Imotski valley there are two
other fields: Studenci and Aržano
fields. Studenci field is rather small, 1 km² in area, 3 km long
and 0.4 km wide. It is divided in two parts: Large (Veliko) and
Small (Malo) fields. Aržano field is
also very small with the area of 1.4 km².
There are many caves and sinkholes in the
county, most of them unexplored and located near Biokovo
mountain. Well known ones are Jovna near Krstatice, Gradinice,
Lozovac, and Ljubovička near Ljubović in
Biokovo. Explored sinkholes are Golubnjača (15 m deep),
Ivanić (50-100), and Procipska which depth has not been measured yet
near Krstatice, and Gozdenjača on the boundary of Slivno and
Krstatice. Unexplored sinkholes are Golubinka near Osoje,
Vitrenjača, Čavčanjača, i Brsčanova on the boundary of Slivno and
Krstatice, Mijoravača in Župa, and Vodena and Ćapinova in upper
terrain is tectonically very unstable, placing the Imotski town region
in VIII earthquake zone under Mercalli scale. There were several
major earthquakes in years 1923, 1937, and in 1942.
The climate is influenced by Mediterranean
climate in the summer and by the continental mountains climate during
the rest of the year. The summers are very dry and warm, while
the winters bring very little snow. The sky is mostly bright
during a year with more than 230 sunny days. Rainy season is
mostly in November and February producing 1300 mm of rain per
year. The most important winds are the cold northern wind called
"bura" with sometimes very strong gusts of more that 70 miles per hour
and east-southern wind called "jugo" that brings humidity and rain from
the Adriatic sea. The tree vegetation is mostly deciduous:
linden, acacia, white poplar, elm. Dalmatian pine is a
predominant coniferous tree in the county. There are also firs on
The Imotski County water masses belong to
Vrljika Imotski drainage system that is one of the thirty-four
Croatianrainage regions. It consists of Imotski valley and a few
fields, 602 km2 in total. The eastern side of the Imotski
Valley, called Bekija belongs to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The main river Vrljika is 18,286
meters long, with 12,714 meters
belonging to Croatia. Its main wells are Opačac and Utopisće, which are
never dry. The seasonal ones are Jezerine, Duboka draga, Jauk, Jažva,
and Dragonja that depend on the snow melted on Bosnia mountains.
Vrljika, it is also called Matica east of Kamen Most goes underground
and changes its name three times. First, it changes name to Tihaljina,
then Mlada, and last to Trebižat that merges to river Neretva. This
four (five) times name-changing river is more than 68 km long. Most of
the Imotski streams, lakes, and many canals contribute water to
Another important water resource for
the Imotski-Bekija Valley is Ričice dam accumulation that receives
water from river Ričina and stream Vrbice. Its dam is 45 m high. It was
built to prevent floods in the wintertime. The flow thru the dam used
to be 1000 liter/s before the construction of the Tribištovo and
Rastovača accumulation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, when it fell to 300
Stream Suvaja takes Ričice dam
accumulation water to Prološko Blato (a retention), on the left, that
can accumulate up to 11.4 mil m3 of water mass. The Prološko
blato water supplies water to the western part of Imotski-Bekija Valley
via canal Sija. It has levies 1,147 meters long on the east side with a
regulated vent. Low water level exposes Krenice, Provalija, and
Jezerce lakes, reducing Prološko Blato to Prološko Lake.
In addition to Suvaja, Prološko
Blato gets water from nearby Galipovac, Knezović, and Mamić lakes. They
are typical karst lakes.
Further east there is Jezerine or Dva Oka
(Two Eyes) as they are better known that are seasonal springs for
Vrljika river. The north "eye" is 42 meters in diameter, while the
south "eye" is 44 meters. The depth of the north "eye" reaches 12.7
meters. Near village Glavina there is seasonal Jažva lake
which is dry in summer time.
Modro and Crveno
or Red lakes are the most well known and attractive lakes. Both of
these lakes were created by water erosion of the underground channels
and caves. The earthquakes have further contributed to the current
shapes, even though the region is not tectonically active.
Modro Jezero has a shape like a
kidney. It is 800 meters long and 250-400 meters wide. It gets dry in
the early Fall in some years. The maximal water level is 107 meters,
when it starts overflowing on the south side. That is exactly what
happened in year 1914.
Red Lake is one of the deepest karst
lakes in the world. Its north side is 250 meter high, with 280 meters
of water below. The precise depth of the lake is not known due to its
complex connected water reservoirs. There were several expeditions in
the recent years making lots of progress, but not providing the
definite answer. The bottom of the lake is just 4 meters above the sea